High-Functioning Adult Dyslexics: Deficits and Compensatory Mechanisms
Most adults with a childhood diagnosis of dyslexia continue to experience significant reading and writing difficulties throughout their lives. These can include problems in identifying single words, comprehending written sentences, and spelling words correctly. More...
Reading Development in Elementary School
Literacy is essential in the modern world, both for personal satisfaction and for employment success in a knowledge-based economy. Mastering literacy is one of the most important challenges children face in elementary school. A great deal of research in the last two decades has uncovered a number of the key cognitive and instructional characteristics that contribute to learning to read. More...
Why is rapid naming speed related to reading ability? Contrasting different theoretical accounts
In this project we are contrasting the most prominent theoretical accounts of the RAN-reading relationship (phonological processing, orthographic processing, and speed of processing account). We contrast the prominent theoretical accounts at three levels: (a) in languages varying in orthographic consistency, (b) in children of different ages, and (c) in normal readers and dyslexic university students.
Speed of processing: Links to cognitive processes and reading across languages
The quest for a general measure of intelligence is older than the short history of psychology. A biological trait such as speed of processing information could be a prime candidate. Individuals differ in their speed of processing information and, hence, in their intelligence (e.g., Jensen, 2006). Although this seems like a reasonable statement, it leads to several questions that the present study aims to address. A pre-eminently important one concerns the universality of speed as an intelligence measure across cultures. The pragmatic use of a universal measure of speed has remained an important concern, especially as it may help to understand reading and language comprehension. Specifically, the present study aims to examine:
(1) If speed of processing can be categorized under different types of information, representing major cognitive processes,
(2) If processing can be categorized as automatic and intentional.
(3) If the findings on speed of processing generalize across three different languages and cultural groups (English, Greek, and Chinese) to predict word reading and comprehension.
Working memory and reading comprehension in university students
Few will disagree with the statement that the goal of reading is comprehension. But reading comprehension is a complex process that involves not only word recognition, knowledge of grammar and the context, but also some important ways in which we process information. Working memory defined as the capacity to store information for a short period of time and manipulate or process it (e.g., Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) has been singled out as one of those cognitive processes. Children as well as university students vary widely in their ability for reading comprehension, and in working memory. Whereas among children, basic skills in reading and grammar are still developing, and these may make some children better at comprehension than others, these skills are no longer that important among university students. Instead, some general cognitive processing abilities only one of which is working memory may influence the ability for comprehension. Two problems that immediately need solution are:
(1) What components of working memory influence comprehension in adults and
(2) What other domain-general processing skills influence reading comprehension beyond working memory.
Helping individuals who experience difficulties in comprehension even at post secondary level will succeed better when we can provide an answer to the twin questions.